Usually cells can hold the free radicals under control with specific proteins and antioxidants. Antioxidants are molecules that help to control the ROS like carotenoids and vitamins E, C and A.

Antioxidant Foods containing high levels of antioxidant
Vitamin C Fresh or frozen fruits and vegetables
Vitamin E Vegetable oils, nuts, and seeds
Resveratrol Grape skin, nuts and berries 4
Flavonoids Leafy vegetables and onions 5
Pyridoxine (Vitamin B6) Fish, beef, liver, starchy vegetables, and fruit
Riboflavin (vitamin B2) Eggs, green vegetables, milk 6
Vitamin A Fruit, vegetables and eggs

RDA (recommended dietary allowance) is shown for adults under 50 years, RDA depends on age and other factors like smoking and pregnancy. RDA values are developed by the Food and Nutrition Board (FNB) at the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies (1).

Vitamin B12 natural sources

Pyridoxine (Vitamin B2) RDA: 1,3mg (2)

Selected Food Sources of Vitamin B6 [4]
Food Milligrams (mg) per serving Percent DV*
Chickpeas, canned, 1 cup 1.1 55
Beef liver, pan fried, 3 ounces 0.9 45
Tuna, yellowfin, fresh, cooked, 3 ounces 0.9 45
Salmon, sockeye, cooked, 3 ounces 0.6 30
Chicken breast, roasted, 3 ounces 0.5 25
Breakfast cereals, fortified with 25% of the DV for vitamin B6 0.5 25
Potatoes, boiled, 1 cup 0.4 20
Turkey, meat only, roasted, 3 ounces 0.4 20
Banana, 1 medium 0.4 20
Marinara (spaghetti) sauce, ready to serve, 1 cup 0.4 20
Ground beef, patty, 85% lean, broiled, 3 ounces 0.3 15
Waffles, plain, ready to heat, toasted, 1 waffle 0.3 15
Bulgur, cooked, 1 cup 0.2 10
Cottage cheese, 1% low-fat, 1 cup 0.2 10
Squash, winter, baked, ½ cup 0.2 10

Vitamin E natural sources

Vitamin E RDA: 15mg

Selected Food Sources of Vitamin E (Alpha-Tocopherol) [9]
Food Milligrams (mg)
per serving
Percent DV*
Wheat germ oil, 1 tablespoon 20.3 100
Sunflower seeds, dry roasted, 1 ounce 7.4 37
Almonds, dry roasted, 1 ounce 6.8 34
Sunflower oil, 1 tablespoon 5.6 28
Safflower oil, 1 tablespoon 4.6 25
Hazelnuts, dry roasted, 1 ounce 4.3 22
Peanut butter, 2 tablespoons 2.9 15
Peanuts, dry roasted, 1 ounce 2.2 11
Corn oil, 1 tablespoon 1.9 10
Spinach, boiled, ½ cup 1.9 10
Broccoli, chopped, boiled, ½ cup 1.2 6
Soybean oil, 1 tablespoon 1.1 6
Kiwifruit, 1 medium 1.1 6
Mango, sliced, ½ cup 0.7 4
Tomato, raw, 1 medium 0.7 4
Spinach, raw, 1 cup 0.6 3
Vitamin C natural sources

Vitamin C RDA: 75mg for females, 90mg for males

Selected Food Sources of Vitamin C [12]
Food Milligrams (mg) per serving Percent (%) DV*
Red pepper, sweet, raw, ½ cup 95 158
Orange juice, ¾ cup 93 155
Orange, 1 medium 70 117
Grapefruit juice, ¾ cup 70 117
Kiwifruit, 1 medium 64 107
Green pepper, sweet, raw, ½ cup 60 100
Broccoli, cooked, ½ cup 51 85
Strawberries, fresh, sliced, ½ cup 49 82
Brussels sprouts, cooked, ½ cup 48 80
Grapefruit, ½ medium 39 65
Broccoli, raw, ½ cup 39 65
Tomato juice, ¾ cup 33 55
Cantaloupe, ½ cup 29 48
Cabbage, cooked, ½ cup 28 47
Cauliflower, raw, ½ cup 26 43
Potato, baked, 1 medium 17 28
Tomato, raw, 1 medium 17 28
Spinach, cooked, ½ cup 9 15
Green peas, frozen, cooked, ½ cup 8 13
Vitamin A natural sources

Carotenoids (Vitamin A) RDA: 700mcg RAE for females, 900 mcg RAE for males.

Table 2: Selected Food Sources of Vitamin A [10]
Food mcg RAE per
IU per
Sweet potato, baked in skin, 1 whole 1,403 28,058 561
Beef liver, pan fried, 3 ounces 6,582 22,175 444
Spinach, frozen, boiled, ½ cup 573 11,458 229
Carrots, raw, ½ cup 459 9,189 184
Pumpkin pie, commercially prepared, 1 piece 488 3,743 249
Cantaloupe, raw, ½ cup 135 2,706 54
Peppers, sweet, red, raw, ½ cup 117 2,332 47
Mangos, raw, 1 whole 112 2,240 45
Black-eyed peas (cowpeas), boiled, 1 cup 66 1,305 26
Apricots, dried, sulfured, 10 halves 63 1,261 25
Broccoli, boiled, ½ cup 60 1,208 24
Ice cream, French vanilla, soft serve, 1 cup 278 1,014 20
Cheese, ricotta, part skim, 1 cup 263 945 19
Tomato juice, canned, ¾ cup 42 821 16
Herring, Atlantic, pickled, 3 ounces 219 731 15
Ready-to-eat cereal, fortified with 10% of the DV for vitamin A, ¾–1 cup (more heavily fortified cereals might provide more of the DV) 127–149 500 10
Milk, fat-free or skim, with added vitamin A and vitamin D, 1 cup 149 500 10
Baked beans, canned, plain or vegetarian, 1 cup 13 274 5
Egg, hard boiled, 1 large 75 260 5
Summer squash, all varieties, boiled, ½ cup 10 191 4
Salmon, sockeye, cooked, 3 ounces 59 176 4
Yogurt, plain, low fat, 1 cup 32 116 2
Pistachio nuts, dry roasted, 1 ounce 4 73 1
Tuna, light, canned in oil, drained solids, 3 ounces 20 65 1
Chicken, breast meat and skin, roasted, ½ breast 5 18 0
  1. Medicine, I. of. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. (1998). doi:10.17226/6015

An allele is a variant form of a gene that is located at a specific position, or genetic locus, on a specific chromosome. Humans have two alleles at each genetic locus, with one allele inherited from each parent.
A chromosome is a thread-like structure of DNA that carries hereditary information, or genes. Human cells have 22 chromosome pairs plus two sex chromosomes, giving a total of 46 per cell.
The proportion of individuals in a population having a disease or characteristic. Prevalence is a statistical concept referring to the number of cases of a disease that are present in a particular population at a given time, whereas incidence refers to the number of new cases that develop in a given period of time.
DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, is the main component of chromosomes and the carrier of genetic information in nearly all living organisms. DNA is made up of molecules called nucleotides. Each nucleotide contains a phosphate group, a sugar group and a nitrogen base. The four types of nitrogen bases are adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G) and cytosine (C).
A hereditary unit consisting of a sequence of DNA that occupies a specific location on a chromosome. Genes are transferred from a parent to offspring, and are responsible for the physical and heritable characteristics or phenotype of an individual.
An alteration in the most common DNA nucleotide sequence. The variant can be benign, pathogenic or of unknown significance. SNPs are the most common type of genetic variation.
The genetic makeup of an individual organism. It may also refer to just a particular gene or set of genes carried by an individual. The genotype determines the phenotype, or observable traits of the organism.
The odds ratio is a way of comparing whether the odds of a certain outcome is the same for two different groups. In this report, the odds ratio estimates the probability of a condition occurring in a group of people with a certain genetic variant compared to a group of people without that variant.

An odds ratio of 1 means that the two groups are equally likely to develop the condition. An odds ratio higher than 1 means that the people with the genetic variant are more likely to develop the condition, while an odds ratio of less than 1 means that the the people with the variant are less likely to develop the condition.
A description of an individual’s physical characteristics, including appearance, development and behaviour. The phenotype is determined by the individual’s genotype as well as environmental factors.
The allele frequency represents the incidence of a gene variant in a population. Alleles are variant forms of a gene that are located at the same position, or genetic locus, on a chromosome.
Single nucleotide polymorphisms, frequently called SNPs, are the most common type of genetic variation among people. A SNP is a variation in a single nucleotide that occurs at a specific position in the genome.


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August 14, 2018